Ders 2.1: Sınıf-içi değerlendirmeler ve Öğretimin amaçlarının (kazanımların) tanımlanması
DISTINCTIONS AMONG ASSESSMENTS, TESTS, MEASUREMENTS, AND EVALUATIONS The general public often uses the terms assessment, test, measurement, and evaluation interchangeably,
General Learning Targets Versus Specific Learning Targets There is an appropriate level of specificity for stating learning targets. If the description of a target is stated too broadly, teachers cannot use it for developing lesson plans and assessment procedures. The previously stated educational goal, for example, may help communicate a general educational aim, but is too broadly stated to be immediately useful to plan lessons and assessments. A general learning target is a statement of an expected learning outcome that is derived from an educational goal. General learning targets are more specific than educational goals and usually clear enough for general planning of a course. However, they need to be made more specific before they can become learning targets that you can use when planning lessons. The following example of a general learning target might be stated for a primary school science unit on measurement in the metric system: Example Acquire the skills needed to use common instruments to measure length, volume, and mass in metric units. When teaching students and assessing their attainment of this general learning target you may need to break it down into two or more specific learning targets. A specific learning target is a clear statement about what students are to achieve at the end of a unit of instruction. Here are three examples of specific learning targets that are derived from the preceding general learning target: Example 1. Measure the length of objects to the nearest tenth of a meter using a meter stick. 2. Measure the mass of objects to the nearest tenth of a kilogram using a simple beam balance and one set of weights. 3. Measure the volume of liquids to the nearest tenth of a liter using a graduated cylinder. Danger of Overly Specific Learning Targets When learning targets are made more specific, the achievement you are to teach and to assess becomes clear. But beware of overspecificity. Long lists of very narrow “bits” of behavior can fragment the subject to be taught. The following examples show learning targets that are too specific, along with a suggested revision: Example The student is able to: Too specific: Estimate the number of beans in a jar. Better: Solve practical problems using calculations and estimation. Rationale: “Beans in a jar” is not the real target of learning. Rather, it is but one of the many possible tasks that a student should complete to demonstrate achievement of estimation and calculation. The learning target statement should describe this less specific achievement. The student is able to: Too specific: Explain the meaning of the term cold front. Better: Explain the meaning of key weather terms. Rationale: “Cold front” is only one of several key weather terms that are included in a unit. Listing a separate learning target for each term taught in the unit fragments the unit’s focus on general weather terminology.
1. Assessment provides teachers with information to make decisions about teaching and provides students with information to make decisions about learning.
2. Assessment, test, measurement, and evaluation are different but related terms.
3. High-stakes assessments provide those in authority with the information they use to classify and sanction.
4. Different kinds of educational decisions require different types of assessment information.
5. Professional guidelines for assessment competencies and assessment literacy are available.
Örnek Belirtge Tabloları
Ölçek hazırlama - başarı testleri
Test amacının belirlenmesi
Belirtge tablosunun hazırlanması
Uygun madde tiplerinin seçilmesi
İlgili test maddelerinin hazırlanması
Pilot uygulama (Deneme uygulaması)
Maddelerin ve/veya testin değerlendirilmesi ve güncellenmesi
Test sonuçlarının özetlenmesi
After successfully completing this lesson, you should be able to:
Identify important features on a time series plot
Identify and interpret an AR(1) model
Interpret an ACF
Identify a weakly stationary time series
Identify when and how to take first differences